The Complete Guide To Carbohydrates

Guide To Carbohydrates

The Complete Guide To Carbohydrates

Carbohydrates are one of the three major macronutrients essential for our overall health and well-being. They are a significant energy source and play a vital role in various bodily functions. This comprehensive article aims to provide you with a detailed understanding of carbohydrates, including their sources, dietary recommendations, structural composition, and cultural significance.

Table of Contents

Carbohydrate Sources

Simple Carbohydrates

Natural Sources: Fruits, vegetables, honey, milk, and other dairy products. 

Processed Sources: Refined sugars, candies, desserts, and sugary beverages.

Complex Carbohydrates

Starches: Grains (wheat, rice,), legumes (beans, lentils), and tubers (potatoes).

Dietary Fiber: Whole grains, fruits, vegetables, legumes, nuts, and seeds.

Nutrient Information

What are Carbohydrates?

Carbohydrates, often referred to as “carbs,” are organic compounds composed of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen atoms. They are classified into three main types: sugars, starches, and fibers. These compounds are the primary source of energy for our bodies, fueling brain function, muscle contractions, and other physiological processes.

Dietary Recommendations

Optimal carbohydrate intake varies based on factors such as age, sex, activity level, overall health, and individual goals. Here are some key points to consider when it comes to dietary recommendations for carbohydrates:

Macronutrient Distribution: The distribution of macronutrients, including carbohydrates, proteins, and fats, in a healthy diet is often expressed as a percentage of total daily caloric intake. While the specific ratios may vary depending on individual needs, the following guidelines are commonly recommended:

  • Carbohydrates: Carbohydrates should typically contribute to around 45-65% of total daily caloric intake. This range ensures an adequate energy supply for the body’s functioning and meets the needs of different individuals.
  • Proteins: Proteins should make up approximately 10-35% of daily caloric intake. Protein is essential for tissue repair, muscle synthesis, enzyme production, and numerous other functions.
  • Fats: Fats should comprise about 20-35% of total daily caloric intake. It is important to prioritize healthier sources of fats, such as unsaturated fats found in nuts, seeds, avocados, and fatty fish, while limiting saturated and trans fats.

Recommended Carbohydrate Intake: The recommended carbohydrate intake can vary based on age, sex, and individual factors. Here are some general guidelines:

  • Adults: The Institute of Medicine suggests a minimum carbohydrate intake of around 130 grams per day for adults. This level ensures adequate glucose supply to the brain, which relies heavily on carbohydrates as its primary fuel source.
  • Athletes: Athletes engaged in regular intense physical activity may require higher carbohydrate intake. This helps support energy demands, enhance performance, and replenish glycogen stores in muscles. Individualized recommendations should be determined based on training intensity, duration, and specific sport requirements.
  • Medical Conditions: Individuals with certain medical conditions, such as diabetes, may need to manage their carbohydrate intake carefully. In consultation with healthcare professionals, they may follow specific carbohydrate counting or glycemic index-based approaches to regulate blood sugar levels.

It is crucial to remember that individual nutritional requirements can vary, and personalized guidance from healthcare professionals or dietitian-nutritionists-near-me/">registered dietitians can provide more accurate recommendations based on specific needs.

Quality and Variety of Carbohydrates: Emphasizing the quality and variety of carbohydrates is essential for a well-balanced diet. Consider the following recommendations:

  • Whole Grains: Choose whole grain options like whole wheat, brown rice, quinoa, and oats. Whole grains retain the bran, germ, and endosperm, providing higher fiber content, vitamins, minerals, and beneficial phytochemicals.
  • Fruits and Vegetables: Incorporate a diverse range of colorful fruits and vegetables, as they are excellent sources of vitamins, minerals, antioxidants, and dietary fiber. They also offer natural sugars in a nutrient-dense package.
  • Legumes: Legumes, such as beans, lentils, and chickpeas, are rich in fiber, protein, and various micronutrients. They are a nutritious alternative to animal-based protein sources.
  • Limit Added Sugars: Minimize the consumption of foods and beverages with added sugars, such as sugary drinks, candies, pastries, and processed snacks. These sources contribute excess calories without providing significant nutritional value.

Individualized Approach: It is important to recognize that dietary recommendations for carbohydrates should be tailored to individual needs. Factors such as age, weight, height, physical activity level, overall health goals, and presence of any medical conditions should be considered when determining the appropriate carbohydrate intake.

Structural Composition

Carbohydrates can be found in various forms, ranging from simple sugars to complex polysaccharides. They are classified into three main types: monosaccharides, disaccharides, and polysaccharides. Let’s explore each type in more detail:

Monosaccharides: Monosaccharides are the simplest form of carbohydrates and cannot be further hydrolyzed into smaller sugar units. They are typically sweet-tasting, water-soluble solids. The most common monosaccharides include:

  • Glucose: Glucose is the primary energy source for living organisms. It is the most abundant monosaccharide and is commonly found in fruits, vegetables, and honey. Glucose is vital for cellular respiration, providing energy to fuel various biological processes.
  • Fructose: Fructose is another important monosaccharide and is commonly found in fruits, vegetables, and honey. It is the sweetest naturally occurring sugar and is often used as a sweetening agent in processed foods and beverages.
  • Galactose: Galactose is less common but is found in dairy products, particularly as part of the disaccharide lactose. It is metabolized into glucose in the body and contributes to energy production.

Disaccharides: Disaccharides are formed by the condensation of two monosaccharide units through a glycosidic bond. They are commonly found in food and are broken down into monosaccharides during digestion. The main disaccharides include:

  • Sucrose: Sucrose, also known as table sugar, is composed of one glucose molecule and one fructose molecule. It is derived from sugarcane, sugar beets, and various other plant sources. Sucrose is widely used as a sweetener in food and beverages.
  • Lactose: Lactose is the disaccharide found exclusively in mammalian milk. It consists of one glucose molecule and one galactose molecule. Lactose serves as the primary carbohydrate source for infants and is digested by the enzyme lactase.
  • Maltose: Maltose is formed during the breakdown of starch and consists of two glucose molecules. It is found in germinating grains, malted beverages, and some fermented foods.

Polysaccharides: Polysaccharides are complex carbohydrates composed of long chains of monosaccharide units. They serve various functions, including energy storage and structural support. The main types of polysaccharides are:

  • Starch: Starch is the primary storage carbohydrate in plants and serves as an energy reserve. It is composed of two components: amylose and amylopectin. Amylose consists of a linear chain of glucose molecules, while amylopectin has a branched structure. Starch-rich foods include grains (wheat, rice, corn), tubers (potatoes), and legumes (beans, lentils).
  • Glycogen: Glycogen serves as the storage form of glucose in animals, primarily in the liver and muscles. It has a highly branched structure, allowing for rapid breakdown and release of glucose when energy demands increase.
  • Fiber: Fiber refers to the indigestible portion of plant foods. It consists of complex carbohydrates, mainly cellulose, hemicellulose, and pectin. Fiber is classified into two main types: soluble fiber and insoluble fiber. Soluble fiber, found in foods like oats, legumes, and fruits, dissolves in water and forms a gel-like substance. Insoluble fiber, present in whole grains, vegetables, and nuts, adds bulk to the diet and aids in bowel movements.

Digestion & Absorption

The chemical process by which the body breaks down and utilizes carbohydrates is called carbohydrate metabolism. It involves several steps and takes place primarily in the digestive system, bloodstream, and cells.

Digestion: Carbohydrate digestion begins in the mouth with the enzyme salivary amylase, which starts breaking down complex carbohydrates into simpler sugars like maltose. Once in the stomach, the acidic environment temporarily halts carbohydrate digestion. However, it resumes in the small intestine with pancreatic amylase, which further breaks down starches into disaccharides like maltose, sucrose, and lactose.

Absorption: The small intestine lining contains specialized cells called enterocytes that have enzymes on their surface to break down disaccharides into monosaccharides. Maltase breaks down maltose into glucose, sucrase breaks down sucrose into glucose and fructose, and lactase breaks down lactose into glucose and galactose. Monosaccharides are then absorbed into the bloodstream.

Transport: Glucose, fructose, and galactose are transported through the bloodstream to reach various tissues and cells that need energy. Insulin, a hormone produced by the pancreas, helps regulate glucose levels by facilitating its uptake into cells.

Glycolysis: Once inside the cells, glucose undergoes a process called glycolysis, which occurs in the cytoplasm. Glycolysis breaks down glucose into two molecules of pyruvate, producing a small amount of ATP (adenosine triphosphate) and NADH (nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide).

Aerobic Respiration: If oxygen is present, pyruvate enters the mitochondria, where it undergoes further reactions in the Krebs cycle and the electron transport chain. These processes generate a large amount of ATP through oxidative phosphorylation. Carbon dioxide and water are byproducts of aerobic respiration.

Anaerobic Respiration: In the absence of oxygen, such as during intense exercise, pyruvate is converted into lactate through a process called anaerobic glycolysis. This provides a rapid but limited amount of ATP without the need for oxygen.

Glycogenesis and Glycogenolysis: Excess glucose in the bloodstream is converted into glycogen through a process called glycogenesis, primarily occurring in the liver and muscles. When blood glucose levels drop, glycogen stored in the liver is broken down into glucose through glycogenolysis, ensuring a steady supply of glucose for energy.

Gluconeogenesis: In situations where glucose availability is low, such as during fasting or prolonged exercise, the body can synthesize glucose from non-carbohydrate sources like amino acids and glycerol. This process is known as gluconeogenesis and occurs mainly in the liver.

Carbohydrates play a crucial role in exercise performance and can also impact weight loss. Here’s how carbohydrates affect exercise and weight loss:

Exercise Performance: Carbohydrates are the primary fuel source for high-intensity exercise. During intense physical activity, the body relies on glycogen, which is the stored form of carbohydrates in muscles and the liver, to provide quick energy. Consuming an adequate amount of carbohydrates before exercise ensures optimal glycogen stores, which can improve endurance, power, and overall performance.

Endurance Exercise: For endurance activities such as long-distance running or cycling, carbohydrates are vital for sustaining energy levels. Consuming carbohydrates during prolonged exercise sessions helps maintain blood glucose levels, delays fatigue, and improves endurance capacity. Sports drinks, energy gels, and carbohydrate-rich foods are commonly used during endurance events to provide readily available fuel.

Recovery: Carbohydrates are essential for post-exercise recovery. After intense exercise, glycogen stores become depleted, and consuming carbohydrates immediately or within a few hours helps replenish glycogen stores and aids in muscle recovery. This ensures that you’re ready for the next training session or competition.

Weight Loss: When it comes to weight loss, the role of carbohydrates can vary depending on individual preferences and dietary strategies. While low-carbohydrate diets have gained popularity for weight loss, it’s important to note that carbohydrates themselves don’t inherently cause weight gain. Weight loss ultimately depends on achieving a calorie deficit, which means consuming fewer calories than you burn.

  • Energy Balance: Carbohydrates provide 4 calories per gram, just like protein. By controlling portion sizes and overall caloric intake, it’s possible to include carbohydrates in a balanced weight loss diet.
  • Satiety: Carbohydrates, particularly those high in fiber such as whole grains, fruits, and vegetables, can contribute to feelings of fullness and satiety. Including these fiber-rich carbohydrates in your diet can help control hunger and reduce the likelihood of overeating.
  • Nutrient Timing: Strategic carbohydrate intake around exercise can be beneficial for weight loss. Consuming carbohydrates before workouts can provide energy and enhance performance, while consuming them after exercise can aid in glycogen replenishment and recovery. It’s important to consider individual needs and preferences when determining the appropriate timing and amount of carbohydrates.
  • Moderation and Quality: It’s generally recommended to focus on consuming complex carbohydrates, such as whole grains, fruits, vegetables, and legumes, which offer more nutrients and fiber compared to simple carbohydrates like refined sugars. Moderation and portion control are key to incorporating carbohydrates into a weight loss plan.

Ultimately, the relationship between carbohydrates, exercise, and weight loss is multifaceted and can vary based on individual factors, goals, and preferences. Consulting with a registered dietitian or healthcare professional can provide personalized guidance and support for optimizing carbohydrate intake and achieving weight loss goals.

Cultural Significance

Carbohydrates in Traditional Diets: Carbohydrate-rich foods have long been an essential component of traditional diets in different cultures around the world. These foods often serve as a primary source of energy and sustenance. For example, rice is a staple in Asian cultures, providing the foundation for meals in countries like China, Japan, and India. Maize (corn) holds cultural significance in Latin American cuisines, where it is used to make tortillas, tamales, and other traditional dishes. European cultures have a strong association with bread, which has been a dietary staple for centuries, with various regional specialties like baguettes, rye bread, or sourdough.

Carbohydrates and Festivals: Carbohydrate-based dishes hold cultural and symbolic significance in many festivals and celebrations around the world. These foods often represent abundance, prosperity, unity, and tradition. For example, during the Chinese New Year, glutinous rice cakes called nian gao are consumed as a symbol of good luck and prosperity. In India, during the festival of Navratri, people partake in fasting and consume dishes made from carbohydrate sources like buckwheat and tapioca, reflecting religious and cultural customs. In Jewish tradition, the unleavened bread called matzo is a central element during Passover, symbolizing the haste in which the Israelites left Egypt.

Culinary Influences: Carbohydrates have significantly influenced culinary techniques and practices worldwide. They serve as the foundation for various cooking methods and processes. Baking, for instance, heavily relies on carbohydrates, particularly wheat flour, to create bread, pastries, cakes, and other baked goods. The art of pasta making, which originated in Italy, showcases the transformation of carbohydrates through the mixing, rolling, and shaping of durum wheat semolina into various pasta shapes. Carbohydrates also play a crucial role in fermentation processes, such as those involved in brewing beer, making wine, or producing bread with the help of yeast. These culinary techniques and practices have been passed down through generations, shaping cultural cuisines and food traditions.

Fruit Nutrient Information (per oz)

Apples: 15 calories, 4g carbohydrates (3g sugar), 0g protein, 0g fat

Bananas: 25 calories, 7g carbohydrates (4g sugar), 0g protein, 0g fat

Oranges: 12 calories, 3g carbohydrates (2g sugar), 0g protein, 0g fat

Strawberries: 8 calories, 2g carbohydrates (1g sugar), 0g protein, 0g fat

Grapes: 20 calories, 5g carbohydrates (4g sugar), 0g protein, 0g fat

Blueberries: 14 calories, 3g carbohydrates (2g sugar), 0g protein, 0g fat

Raspberries: 15 calories, 4g carbohydrates (1g sugar), 0g protein, 0g fat

Blackberries: 14 calories, 3g carbohydrates (2g sugar), 0g protein, 0g fat

Pineapple: 20 calories, 5g carbohydrates (4g sugar), 0g protein, 0g fat

Watermelon: 9 calories, 2g carbohydrates (2g sugar), 0g protein, 0g fat

Kiwi: 17 calories, 4g carbohydrates (2g sugar), 0g protein, 0g fat

Mango: 18 calories, 5g carbohydrates (4g sugar), 0g protein, 0g fat

Papaya: 12 calories, 3g carbohydrates (2g sugar), 0g protein, 0g fat

Pears: 17 calories, 5g carbohydrates (3g sugar), 0g protein, 0g fat

Cherries: 16 calories, 4g carbohydrates (3g sugar), 0g protein, 0g fat

Peaches: 12 calories, 3g carbohydrates (2g sugar), 0g protein, 0g fat

Plums: 16 calories, 4g carbohydrates (3g sugar), 0g protein, 0g fat

Apricots: 13 calories, 3g carbohydrates (2g sugar), 0g protein, 0g fat

Grapefruit: 12 calories, 3g carbohydrates (2g sugar), 0g protein, 0g fat

Lemons: 4 calories, 1g carbohydrates (0g sugar), 0g protein, 0g fat

Limes: 4 calories, 1g carbohydrates (0g sugar), 0g protein, 0g fat

Cranberries: 4 calories, 1g carbohydrates (0g sugar), 0g protein, 0g fat

Vegetables Nutrient Information (per oz)

Artichokes: 16 calories, 4g carbohydrates (0.2g sugar), 0.6g protein, 0.2g fat

Asparagus: 4 calories, 1g carbohydrates (0.4g sugar), 0.4g protein, 0g fat

Bean sprouts: 8 calories, 2g carbohydrates (1g sugar), 0.6g protein, 0g fat

Beets: 9 calories, 2g carbohydrates (1g sugar), 0.3g protein, 0g fat

Bell peppers (green): 6 calories, 1g carbohydrates (0.6g sugar), 0.2g protein, 0g fat

Bell peppers (red): 9 calories, 2g carbohydrates (1g sugar), 0.3g protein, 0g fat

Bok choy: 5 calories, 1g carbohydrates (0.3g sugar), 0.5g protein, 0g fat

Broccoli: 10 calories, 2g carbohydrates (0.4g sugar), 1g protein, 0g fat

Brussels sprouts: 10 calories, 2g carbohydrates (0.5g sugar), 0.5g protein, 0g fat

Cabbage: 4 calories, 1g carbohydrates (0.5g sugar), 0.2g protein, 0g fat

Carrots: 10 calories, 2g carbohydrates (1g sugar), 0.2g protein, 0g fat

Cauliflower: 7 calories, 1g carbohydrates (0.3g sugar), 0.5g protein, 0g fat

Celery: 3 calories, 1g carbohydrates (0.4g sugar), 0.1g protein, 0g fat

Cilantro: 2 calories, 0.4g carbohydrates (0.1g sugar), 0.2g protein, 0g fat

Corn: 28 calories, 6g carbohydrates (2g sugar), 1g protein, 0.4g fat

Cucumbers: 4 calories, 1g carbohydrates (0.3g sugar), 0.2g protein, 0g fat

Eggplant: 8 calories, 2g carbohydrates (1g sugar), 0.2g protein, 0g fat

Garlic: 13 calories, 3g carbohydrates (0.2g sugar), 0.6g protein, 0g fat

Ginger: 8 calories, 2g carbohydrates (0.2g sugar), 0.2g protein, 0g fat

Green beans: 8 calories, 2g carbohydrates (0.4g sugar), 0.4g protein, 0g fat

Green onions (scallions): 5 calories, 1g carbohydrates (0.6g sugar), 0.1g protein, 0g fat

Green peas: 22 calories, 4g carbohydrates (1g sugar), 1.4g protein, 0.2g fat

Kale: 8 calories, 1g carbohydrates (0.2g sugar), 0.7g protein, 0.1g fat

Leeks: 9 calories, 2g carbohydrates (0.9g sugar), 0.3g protein, 0g fat

Mushrooms: 4 calories, 1g carbohydrates (0.3g sugar), 0.6g protein, 0.1g fat

Mustard greens: 5 calories, 1g carbohydrates (0.3g sugar), 0.5g protein, 0.1g fat

Okra: 8 calories, 2g carbohydrates (0.2g sugar), 0.4g protein, 0g fat

Onions: 9 calories, 2g carbohydrates (1g sugar), 0.2g protein, 0g fat

Parsley: 4 calories, 1g carbohydrates (0.1g sugar), 0.2g protein, 0g fat

Peppers (green): 6 calories, 1g carbohydrates (0.6g sugar), 0.2g protein, 0g fat

Radicchio: 4 calories, 1g carbohydrates (0.2g sugar), 0.2g protein, 0g fat

Radishes: 3 calories, 1g carbohydrates (0.7g sugar), 0.1g protein, 0g fat

Spinach: 7 calories, 1g carbohydrates (0.1g sugar), 1g protein, 0g fat

Swiss chard: 7 calories, 1g carbohydrates (0.4g sugar), 0.6g protein, 0.1g fat

Tomatoes: 5 calories, 1g carbohydrates (1g sugar), 0.2g protein, 0g fat

Turnips: 4 calories, 1g carbohydrates (0.4g sugar), 0.1g protein, 0g fat

Winter squash (butternut): 16 calories, 4g carbohydrates (0.7g sugar), 0.3g protein, 0.1g fat

Zucchini: 4 calories, 1g carbohydrates (0.4g sugar), 0.3g protein, 0g fat

Grains Nutrient Information (per oz)

Amaranth: 61 calories, 11g carbohydrates, 2.6g protein, 1g fat

Barley: 37 calories, 8g carbohydrates, 1g protein, 0.2g fat

Buckwheat groats: 92 calories, 20g carbohydrates, 3.4g protein, 0.7g fat

Buckwheat: 92 calories, 20g carbohydrates, 3.4g protein, 0.7g fat

Bulgar wheat: 33 calories, 7g carbohydrates, 1.2g protein, 0.1g fat

Bulgur: 33 calories, 7g carbohydrates, 1.2g protein, 0.1g fat

Cornmeal: 99 calories, 21g carbohydrates, 2g protein, 0.9g fat

Couscous: 37 calories, 8g carbohydrates, 1g protein, 0g fat

Farro: 36 calories, 8g carbohydrates, 1.4g protein, 0.2g fat

Fonio: 42 calories, 9g carbohydrates, 1g protein, 0g fat

Freekeh: 37 calories, 8g carbohydrates, 1.4g protein, 0.2g fat

Job’s tears (Hato mugi): 32 calories, 7g carbohydrates, 0.8g protein, 0.2g fat

Kamut: 37 calories, 8g carbohydrates, 1.4g protein, 0.2g fat

Millet: 41 calories, 8g carbohydrates, 1g protein, 0.3g fat

Oats: 103 calories, 18g carbohydrates, 3.7g protein, 1.8g fat

Polenta: 99 calories, 21g carbohydrates, 2g protein, 0.9g fat

Quinoa: 39 calories, 7g carbohydrates, 1.4g protein, 0.6g fat

Rice (brown): 36 calories, 8g carbohydrates, 0.8g protein, 0.2g fat

Rice (white): 37 calories, 8g carbohydrates, 0.7g protein, 0.1g fat

Rye: 37 calories, 8g carbohydrates, 1.4g protein, 0.2g fat

Sorghum: 34 calories, 8g carbohydrates, 0.6g protein, 0.2g fat

Spelt: 34 calories, 7g carbohydrates, 1.4g protein, 0.2g fat

Teff: 32 calories, 6g carbohydrates, 1.4g protein, 0.3g fat

Triticale: 34 calories, 7g carbohydrates, 1.4g protein, 0.2g fat

Wheat (whole grain): 35 calories, 7g carbohydrates, 1.4g protein, 0.2g fat

Wheat germ: 101 calories, 18g carbohydrates, 6g protein, 2.7g fat

Wheat germ: 101 calories, 18g carbohydrates, 6g protein, 2.7g fat

Wild rice: 35 calories, 7g carbohydrates, 1.4g protein, 0.2g fat

Legumes Nutrient Information (per oz)

Black beans: 41 calories, 7.5g carbohydrates, 2.5g protein, 0.2g fat

Black-eyed peas: 42 calories, 7.5g carbohydrates, 3g protein, 0.2g fat

Chickpeas (garbanzo beans): 46 calories, 8g carbohydrates, 2.4g protein, 0.8g fat

Edamame: 40 calories, 3.5g carbohydrates, 4g protein, 1.5g fat

Green peas: 22 calories, 4g carbohydrates, 1.4g protein, 0.2g fat

Kidney beans: 43 calories, 7.7g carbohydrates, 3.2g protein, 0.2g fat

Lentils: 49 calories, 9g carbohydrates, 3g protein, 0.2g fat

Lima beans: 44 calories, 8.2g carbohydrates, 2.5g protein, 0.2g fat

Mung beans: 31 calories, 5.9g carbohydrates, 2.5g protein, 0.2g fat

Navy beans: 42 calories, 7.8g carbohydrates, 2.4g protein, 0.2g fat

Pinto beans: 45 calories, 8g carbohydrates, 2.5g protein, 0.2g fat

Soybeans: 75 calories, 6g carbohydrates, 7g protein, 4g fat

Split peas: 43 calories, 8g carbohydrates, 3g protein, 0.2g fat

Tubers Other Starches Nutrient Information (per oz)

Acorn squash: 23 calories, 6g carbohydrates, 0.4g protein, 0.1g fat

Amchoor (mango powder): 52 calories, 13g carbohydrates, 1g protein, 0g fat (per ounce)

Arrowroot flour: 114 calories, 28g carbohydrates, 0g protein, 0g fat (per ounce)

Breadfruit: 103 calories, 27g carbohydrates, 1g protein, 0g fat (per ounce)

Butternut squash: 20 calories, 5.6g carbohydrates, 0.4g protein, 0.1g fat

Cassava (yuca): 38 calories, 8.8g carbohydrates, 0.3g protein, 0.1g fat

Jerusalem artichoke: 73 calories, 17g carbohydrates, 2g protein, 0g fat (per ounce)

Masa harina (corn flour): 100 calories, 22g carbohydrates, 2g protein, 1g fat (per ounce)

Plantains: 48 calories, 12.2g carbohydrates, 0.4g protein, 0.2g fat

Potatoes (white): 24 calories, 5.4g carbohydrates, 0.6g protein, 0.1g fat

Sago pearls: 100 calories, 25g carbohydrates, 0g protein, 0g fat (per ounce)

Sweet potatoes: 28 calories, 6.6g carbohydrates, 0.5g protein, 0.1g fat

Taro: 55 calories, 13g carbohydrates, 0.5g protein, 0.1g fat (per ounce)

Yams: 29 calories, 6.9g carbohydrates, 0.4g protein, 0.1g fat

Scroll to Top